Learning Goal: I’m working on a history question and need guidance to help me le

Learning Goal: I’m working on a history question and need guidance to help me learn.Select one of the questions that follow. They are drawn from material in weeks 4-8, so start your preparation by reviewing the classes, seminars, and readings for the relevant week.Use Oxford referencing: footnotes and bibliography. Instructions here.The word limit is 2000 words. This does not include footnotes and the bibliography. You may go over or under the word limit by 10%.The recommended readings are starting lists only; feel free to use peer-reviewed secondary sources beyond these. Use no fewer than six secondary sources. To swap ideas about readings and other matters, head to the CloudDeakin Discussion Boards.Consult the rubric to guide your preparation, research, approach to answering the question, analysis, composition, and referencing.We mark your work online. Please make it easy for us to read by formatting thus: double-space your lines; use a generous-sized font (eg, Calibri or Times New Roman size 12) and reasonably generous margins of at least 3 cm right and left.Questions (select one)1. Which of the following causes was most important in decolonisation: charismatic leadership; violent resistance; nationalism; religion; economic reasons; the Second World War; anti-colonial solidarity in new organisations, including the UN; the end of the myth of European superiority; or the Cold War? In your answer, refer to at least two case studies from the following list: India, Indonesia, Algeria, Kenya, Papua New Guinea. Recommended readings:Dietmar Rothermund, The Routledge Companion to Decolonization, Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon, 2006.David Reynolds, One World Divisible: A Global History since 1945, Penguin, 2000, 76-107.Martin Thomas and Andrew Thompson, ‘Empire and Globalisation: from “High Imperialism to Decolonisation’, International History Review, 36, 1, 2014, 142-170.Fabian Klose, ‘“Source of Embarrassment”: Human Rights, State of Emergency, and the Wars of Decolonization’, in Stefan-Ludwig Hoffmann, ed., Human Rights in the Twentieth Century, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2011, 237-257. (Many of the other chapters in this book may also be useful.)Mark Philip Bradley, ‘Decolonization, the global South, and the Cold War, 1919-1962’, in Melvyn P. Leffler and Odd Arne Westad, eds., The Cambridge History of the Cold War, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2010, 464-485.Urvashi Butalia, ‘Legacies of Departure: Decolonization, Nation-making, and Gender’, in Philippa Levine, ed., Gender and Empire, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2004, 203-219.Mrinalini Sinha, ‘The Lineage of the “Indian” Modern: Rhetoric, Agency and the Sarda Act in Late Colonial India’, in Antoinette Burton, ed., Gender, Sexuality and Colonial Modernities, Routledge, London, 1999, 209-223.2. ‘The UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 was an international milestone. But for movements demanding equal rights such as those led by African Americans, Indigenous people, women, and gay and lesbian and gender non-conforming people, high levels of organisation and careful campaigns were more important.’ Discuss with reference to two out of the four above-mentioned groups.Recommended readings:Johannes Morsink, Inherent Human Rights: The Philosophical Roots of the Universal Declaration, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 2009. (See especially pp. 148-161, 207-225.)Johannes Morsink, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Origins, Drafting, and Intent, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1999. (Scan the Table of Contents for chapters/sections relevant to your topics of choice.)Jacob Dolinger, ‘The Failure of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights’, University of Miami Inter-American Law Review, 47, 2, Summer 2016, 164-199.Civil Rights in the United StatesCharles M. Payne, I’ve Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1995/2007.Françoise N. Hamlin, Crossroads at Clarksdale: The Black Freedom Struggle in the Mississippi Delta after World War II, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 2012.Carol Anderson, ‘From Hope to Disillusion: African Americans, the United Nations, and the Struggle for Human Rights, 1944-1947’, Diplomatic History, 20, 4, Oct. 1996, 531-564. [Also Anderson’s book, which continues the story, Eyes Off the Prize: The United Nations and the African American Struggle for Human Rights, 1944-1955, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2003.Civil Rights in AustraliaAnne Scrimgeour, ‘“To Make It Brilliantly Apparent to the People of Australia”: The Pilbara Cooperative Movement and the Campaign for Aboriginal Civil Rights in the 1950s’, Journal of Australian Studies, 40, 1, 2016, 16-31Bain Attwood, ‘The Articulation of “Land Rights” in Australia: The Case of Wave Hill’, Social Analysis, 44, 1, April 2000, 3-39.Miranda Johnson, ‘Connecting Indigenous Rights to Human Rights in the Anglo Settler States’, in A. Dirk Moses, Marco Duranti and Roland Burke, eds., Decolonization, Self-Determination, and the Rise of the Global Human Rights Politics, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2020, 109-131.Gary Foley and Tim Anderson, ‘Land Rights and Aboriginal Voices’, Australian Journal of Human Rights, 12, 1, 2006, 83-108.Women’s LiberationYulia Gradskova, ‘Women’s International Democratic Federation, the “Third World” and the Global Cold War from the late-1950s to the mid-1960s’, Women’s History Review, 29, 2 (2020): 270-288.Dominique Clément, ‘“I Believe in Human Rights, Not Women’s Rights”: Women and the Human Rights State, 1969-1984,’ Radical History Review, 101, 2008, 107-129.Jon Piccini, ‘“Women are a colonised sex”: Elizabeth Reid, Human Rights and International Women’s Year 1975’, Australian Historical Studies, 49, 3, 2018, 307-323.Patricia Grimshaw, Nell Musgrove, and Shurlee Swain, “The Australian Labour Movement and Working Mothers in the United Nations’ Decade for Women, 1975-1985,” in Julie Kimber and Peter Love, eds., The Time of Their Lives: The Eight Hour Day and Working Life, Australia Society for the Study of Labour History, Melbourne, 2007, LGBTQ+ ActivismLeila J. Rupp, ‘The Persistence of Transnational Organizing: The Case of the Homophile Movement’, American Historical Review, 116, 4, Oct. 2011, 1014-1039.Timothy Stewart-Winter, ‘The Law and Order Origins of Urban Gay Politics’, Journal of Urban History, 41, 5, 2015, 825-835.Christina B. Hanhardt, ‘Butterflies, Whistles, and Fists: Gay Safe Streets Patrols and the New Gay Ghetto, 1976-1981’, Radical History Review, 100, Winter 2008, 60-85.3. The year 1968 sometimes described as a year in which protesters took their campaigns for change to the streets. With reference to protest movements in two different countries, explain the benefits of focusing on one tumultuous year as a means of understanding social change. In addition, describe some of the limitations that accompany a historical focus on one year.Recommended readings:Robert Gildea, ‘1968 in 2008’, History Today, 58, 5, May 2008, 22-25 (and other essays in this issue)American Historical Review, special issue, June 2018, vol. 123, issue 3 (see different articles throughout, organised by focusing on different countries).Sarah Colvin, Women, Global Protest Movements, and Political Agency: Rethinking the Legacy of 1968, Routledge, Milton, 2018.Phillip Gassert and Martin Klimke (eds), 1968: On the edge of world revolution, Black Rose Books, Montreal, 2018.Richard Curt Kraus, The Cultural Revolution: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2012.4. Why did US President Ronald Reagan say, during his inaugural address in 1981, that government was not the solution, it was the problem? In your answer, consider the policies and pronouncements of the Reagan (US) and Thatcher (British) governments, and one other government.Recommended readings:Robert Ledger, Neoliberal Thought and Thatcherism: ‘a transition from here to there’?, Routledge, London, 2018Tom Mills, ‘Remembering Thatcher and understanding Thatcherism’, Agora, 2103, 48, 2, 43-50Bruce Schulman and Julian Zelizer, Rightward Bound: Making America Conservative in the 1970s, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA., 2008.Kim Phillips-Fein, ‘Conservatism: A State of the Field’, Journal of American History 98, 3, Dec. 2011, 723-743. (And other essays in this section, which is titled ‘Conservatism: A Round Table’.)Doug Rossinow, The Reagan Era: a history of the 1980s, Columbia University Press, New York, 2015Daniel Stedman Jones, Masters of the Universe: Hayek, Friedman and the birth of neoliberal politics, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2012, pp. 1-20 and beyond.Margaret Thatcher, Speech to the Conservative Party Conference, Brighton, 10 October 1980, via the Margaret Thatcher Foundation.5 . Why was there such a rise in the numbers of those protesting nuclear energy and nuclear weapons in the 1980s? In your answer, consider the activities of protesters in two different countries, and consider also the connections between protesters in these different countries.Recommended readings:Alison Bartlett, ‘Feminist protest and maternity at Pine Gap women’s peace camp, Australia, 1983’, Women’s Studies International Forum, 34 (2011), 31-38.Thomas R. Rochon, Mobilizing for Peace: the anti-nuclear movements in Western Europe, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2014.Lawrence S. Wittner, Confronting the Bomb: a short history of the world nuclear disarmament movement, Stanford University Press, Stanford, 2009, pp. 141-192.Ronald Reagan’s Strategic Defense Initiative speech, 23 March 1983The 1983 (Able Archer) War Scare, Declassified, available through the US National Security Archive
Requirements: 2000

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